Atmospheric correction for satellite-derived bathymetry in the Caribbean waters: from a single image to multi-temporal approaches using Sentinel-2A/B
Caballero, Isabel; Stumpf, Richard P.
Different atmospheric correction (AC) procedures for Sentinel-2 satellites are evaluated for their effectiveness in retrieving consistent satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB) over two islands in the Caribbean (Buck and Culebra). The log-ratio method for SDB, which allows use of minimal calibration information from lidar surveys (25 points in this study), is applied to several Sentinel-2A/B scenes at 10 m spatial resolution. The overall performance during a one-year study period depends on the image quality and AC. Three AC processors were evaluated: ACOLITE Exponential model (EXP), ACOLITE Dark Spectrum Fitting model (DSF), and C2RCC model. ACOLITE EXP and ACOLITE DSF produce greater consistency and repeatability with accurate results in a scene-by-scene analysis (mean errors similar to 1.1 m) for depths up to 23 m (limit of lidar surveys). In contrast, C2RCC produces lower accuracy and noisier results with generally higher (> 50%) errors (mean errors similar to 2.2 m), but it is able to retrieve depth for scenes in Buck Island that have moderately severe sunglint. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a multi-temporal compositing model for SDB mapping, using ACOLITE for the input scenes, could achieve overall median errors < 1 m for depths ranging 0-23 m. The simple and effective compositing model can considerably enhance coastal SDB estimates with high reliability and no missing data, outperforming the traditional single image approaches and thus eliminating the need to evaluate individual scenes. The consistency in the output from the AC correction indicates the potential for automated application of the multi-scene compositing technique, which can apply the open and free Sentinel-2 data set for the benefit of operational and scientific investigations. (C) 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
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