Oral Delivery of Biologics for Precision Medicine
Duran-Lobato, Matilde; Niu, Zhigao; Alonso, Maria Jose
The emerging field of precision medicine is rapidly growing, fostered by the advances in genome mapping and molecular diagnosis. In general, the translation of these advances into precision treatments relies on the use of biological macromolecules, whose structure offers a high specificity and potency. Unfortunately, due to their complex structure and limited ability to overcome biological barriers, these macromolecules need to be administered via injection. The scientific community has devoted significant effort to making the oral administration of macromolecules plausible thanks to the implementation of drug delivery technologies. Here, an overview of the current situation and future prospects in the field of oral delivery of biologics is provided. Technologies in clinical trials, as well as recent and disruptive delivery systems proposed in the literature for local and systemic delivery of biologics including peptides, antibodies, and nucleic acids, are described. Strategies for the specific targeting of gastrointestinal regions-stomach, small bowel, and colon-cell populations, and internalization pathways, are analyzed. Finally, challenges associated with the clinical translation, future prospects, and identified opportunities for advancement in this field are also discussed.
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