A Literature Review of Host Feeding Patterns of Invasive Aedes Mosquitoes in Europe
Cebrian-Camison, Sonia; Martinez-de la Puente, Josue; Figuerola, Jordi
Simple Summary Invasive mosquito species alter the local epidemiology of many pathogens in the invaded areas, including locality circulating pathogens and imported ones. Four invasive species of the genus Aedes are established in Europe, potentially affecting the transmission of vector-borne diseases in the area. These species include Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus and Aedes koreicus. Here, we extensively review the blood feeding patterns of these invasive Aedes mosquitoes which constitute a key parameter affecting the contact rates between infected and susceptible hosts, thus playing a central role in epidemiology of mosquito-borne pathogens. Our results show that these mosquito species feed on different vertebrate groups, especially on mammals. Humans are common hosts of these species, representing 36% and 93% of the blood meals identified for Aedes japonicus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Birds and, even, ectotherms have been recorded as potential hosts of these Aedes invasive mosquitoes. Given their competence for the transmission of emerging arboviruses such as dengue or Chikungunya viruses and their rates of feeding in humans, Aedes invasive species may have an important impact in the transmission of these pathogens in urban and periurban areas. Finally, we identify the knowledge gaps on the blood feeding patterns of these species and propose directions for future research. Aedes invasive mosquitoes (AIMs) play a key role as vectors of several pathogens of public health relevance. Four species have been established in Europe, including Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus and Aedes koreicus. In addition, Aedes atropalpus has been repeatedly recorded although it has not yet been established. In spite of their importance in the transmission of endemic (e.g., heartworms) and imported pathogens (e.g., dengue virus), basic information of parameters affecting their vectorial capacity is poorly investigated. The aim of this study is to review the blood feeding patterns of these invasive mosquito species in Europe, summarizing available information from their native and introduced distribution ranges. The feeding patterns of mosquitoes constitute a key parameter affecting the contact rates between infected and susceptible hosts, thus playing a central role in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne pathogens. Our results highlight that these mosquito species feed on the blood of different vertebrate groups from ectotherms to birds and mammals. However, humans represent the most important source of blood for these species, accounting for 36% and 93% of hosts identified for Ae. japonicus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. In spite of that, limited information has been obtained for some particular species, such as Ae. koreicus, or it is restricted to a few particular areas. Given the high vector competence of the four AIM species for the transmission of different emerging arboviruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, Zika or Yellow fever viruses and their high feeding rates on humans, these AIM species may have an important impact on the vectorial capacity for such pathogens on urban and periurban areas. Finally, we propose directions for future research lines based on identified knowledge gaps.
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